New York, 1910
CZERNOWlTZ (Rum. Cernautzi), the capital of the Austrian duchy of
Bukovina; 420 m. E. of Vienna and I64 m. S.E. of Lemberg by rail. Pop.
(1900) 69,619. It is picturesquely situated on a height above the right
bank of the river Pruth, which is crossed here by two bridges, of which
one is a railway bridge. Czernowitz is a clean, pleasant town of recent
date, and is the seat of the Greek orthodox archbishop or metropolitan
of Bukovina. The principal buildings include the Greek Orthodox cathedral,
finished in 1864 after the model of the church of St. Isaac at St. Petersburg;
the Armenian church, in a mixed Gothic and Renaissance style, consecrated
in 1875; a handsome new Jesuit church, and a new synagogue in Moorish style,
built in 1877. The most conspicuous building of the town is the Episcopal
palace, in Byzantine style, built in 1864 - 1875, which is adorned with
a high tower and possesses a magnificent reception hall. In one of the
public squares stands the Austrian monument, executed by Pekary and erected
in 1875 to commemorate the centenary of Austria's possession of Bukovina.
It consists of a marble statue of Austria erected on a pedestal of green
Carpathian sandstone. The Francis Joseph University, also opened in 1875,
had 50 lecturers and over 500 students in 1901. The language of instruction
is German, and it possesses three faculties: theology, law and philosophy
The industry is not very developed and consists chiefly in corn-milling
and brewing. An active trade is carried on in agricultural produce, wood,
wool, cattle and spirits. Czernowitz has a mixed population, which consists
of Germans, Ruthenians, Rumanians, Poles, Jews, Armenians and Gypsies.
The town presents, therefore, a cosmopolitan and on market days a very
varied appearance, when side by side with people turned out in the latest
fashions from Paris or Vienna, we meet peasants of various nationalities,
attired in their national costume, intermingled with very scantily-clad
On the opposite bank of the Pruth, at a very little distance to the
N., is situated the town of Sadagora (pop. 4512, mostly Jews), where a
famous cattle fair takes place every year.
Czernowitz was at the time of the Austrian occupation (1775) an unimportant
village. It was created a town in 1786, and at the beginning of the 19th
century it numbered only 5000 inhabitants.
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